Scientific Software. Moreover, it also observes the potential interplay between identifi- cation and other variables gender, inter-contact and religiosity on this social prejudice. Morrison, M. Those who reported positive experiences said that they enjoyed attending the groups because they met new friends, felt more involved in their community, and were able to engage with others in thoughtful and important discussions about HIV and STDs. Second, participants were knowledgeable of HIV and made choices that reduced their risk. Siker, J. These groups include organisations with wide-ranging missions, from social networking to activism to HIV prevention and other health outcome foci. Group dynamics that were antagonistic to couples alienated some participants, which led them to distance themselves from the groups or leave them altogether. The mediating role of self-disclosure and inter-group anxiety. Journal of NSRC. This gave the interviews a natural flow and allowed participants to discuss what was salient and relevant. Procedure A questionnaire measuring socio-demographic information, homophobia, interper- sonal contact with gay men and religiosity was applied to the participants pre-test. PhD dissertation. It also raises questions about whether differences exist for LGM in interracial relationships, as these men face a different set of relational circumstances as a result of having non-Latino partners Bianchi et al. Mazur, M. These latter couples had understandings whereby sex outside the relationship was not considered cheating so long as each partner remained emotionally faithful to the other. Second, all participants were residents of the San Francisco Bay Area. The higher level of homophobia was followed by the lower level of identification with the protagonist. All participants declared being heterosexual. This is directly related to the extent to which the recipient internalizes and shares the aims of the character Cohen However, Limun sees that all his colleagues turn their backs on him and he must turn to his old friends from Bosnia, Kosovo and Croatia for help. Procedure Eligible couples were given scheduled appointments for minute semi-structured, qualitative interviews that were conducted at the study offices in downtown San Francisco. Osnovisocijalnepsihologije III. A majority of participants seven couples reported hearing about the study through recruitment efforts at social support groups for LGM. Concordant positive and discordant couples may demonstrate different relational and sexual dynamics and it would be inaccurate to assume the motivations behind their agreements and safer sex efforts are the same. This result offers an answer to RQ1.
This result should be interpreted in the context of high correlation between the score on homophobia scale and items on identification scale. For example, fictions addressing topics such as the Holocaust, war, exploitation of human beings, racism or disability can excite viewers and cause an emotional impact resulting in a change in attitude Igartua and Barrios Transforming the daytime landscape. The pros for socially dominant cons. Although the characters show a political attitude, as they organize a gay parade, they are being normalized or purified by placing them in domestic environments. Couples were eligible to participate only after both partners were screened and found to meet all eligibility criteria. A comment on Oliver and Hyde The European Journal of Communication Research, 4, — Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 47 2 , — Mazur, M. Data from a probability sample of Latino gay men in three US cities.
Sage Publications, Inc; As a result, LGM may need additional support around disclosure and mitigating the potential emotional fallout. The psychology of prejudice and discrimination. Journal of Communication, 61, — Additionally, we explored simple Pearson correlation coefficients between the scale items and the score change in the homophobia scale Table 4. Ciprez for his work recruiting and interviewing participants, and to Nicholas Sheon for his assistance with Transana. The parasocial contact hypothesis. Identification with characters and discussion of taboo topics after exposure to an entertainment narrative about sexual health. Soto-Sanfiel identity and is satisfied with life, elicits a positive attitude in the audience towards homosexuality Harrington Culture, Health and Sexuality. Turner, R. Other researchers have recently become concerned with the processes that are fundamental for contact effects, categorizing mediators such as reduced inter-group anxiety Herek and Glunt ; Vonofakou et al. Moreover, the results of this study are in line with findings supporting identification with characters as an important mechanism predicting narrative persuasion. In case participants knew someone who was gay, they were asked to assess the relation with the gay person as close, pleasant or equal. For their part, men accept less gays than lesbians Aosved and Long ; Kite and Whitley ; Morrison and Morrison A theoretical look at the identification of audiences with characters. Furthermore, given that the factor structure did not completely match the factorial disposition of Igartua and Barrios original instrument, we should keep in mind that the structural inconsistency was probably the result of a relatively small sample of participants in the present study. We also seek to advance in finding an answer to the next question: Dyadic processes of partner selection. Interviewers were trained to pose questions in an open-ended, conversational tone and probe for clarity when and where necessary. It is worth considering that, in many societies, there is an increasing number of television programs and mainstream movies with non-heterosexual characters as protagonists, which is related to a favorable shift on the attitudes towards gays Altemeyer ; Detenber et al.
This places our sample in the upper end of the range of percentages of couples who have closed agreements as reported by previous research Adam ; Hoff and Beougher ; Hoff et al. All reported being HIV-negative and in concordant negative relationships. Racism, poverty and other truths about sex: Although we did not obtain acceptable models in the CFAs of the two scales, both EFAs reveal relationships between the used variables that might interest researchers on the topic. Callers were screened over the telephone for eligibility. Journal of Homosexuality, 43 2 , 15— A prolongued-exposure experiment. Partners in another couple, Carlos and Nestor, reported being involved in the same break: Simon and Schuster; The highest education levels are related to less prejudice towards homosexuals Detenber et al. In addition, most of them consider homosexuality as a part of religious prohibitions and very few of them consider gay rights to be a part of basic and fundamental human rights.
A theoretical look at the identification of audiences with characters. At the same time, the quality of contact with gay, but G. Joyce, N. Hoffner, C. Racism, poverty and other truths about sex: The translation of the scale, originally in Spanish, to Serbian followed the followed the forward translation method Hambleton Studies examining the role of primary partners in HIV transmission continually find that they are a leading source of new HIV infections Davidovich et al. LaMar, L. Sage Publications, Inc; Through the CFA, we pretended to continue advancing in the definition of the concept and its measurement. Structural equation modeling with AMOS 2nd ed. Lesbian and gay sexualities. Emotional empathy is the ability to feel what the character feels. Correspondingly, Pettigrew and Tropp claim that the contact not only leads to improvement of attitudes toward members of other groups in a specific situation, but also affects the perception of the members of the group in other contexts. Acknowledgements The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on the manuscript. Do the high levels of cognitive empathy reveal an audience distance or detachment from the character or the film? Boston, MA: Every participant commented positively on this experience and most felt it added something special to their relationships. Enhancing attitudes toward stigmatized groups with movies: Bierly, M. Confronting sexual stigma and prejudice: In fact, beliefs about gender roles mediate the differences between the attitudes of different genders towards homosexuality LaMar and Kite This also confirms H4. The role of religion and cultural context. Journal of Homosexuality, 51 4 , 15— Correlates of negative attitudes toward homosexuals in heterosexual college students. This research tradition has produced a vast body of suggesting reflections. Some researchers have turned to examining the contexts within which HIV risk occurs to help explain the high rate of infection among LGM. Moreover, the context of data collection a Serbian private university could affect the results too. Journal of Homosexuality, 52, —
Journal of Homosexuality, 57, — Personal religion: Hence, according to the preliminary evidences, we present the next hypothesis: LaMar, L. Echoing their motivations for having closed agreements, some expressed their belief that open agreements increased risk for HIV. One of the most interesting results of this work is that audiences feel more cognitive than emotional empathy toward the gay protagonist. Let us remember that we translated the original scale to Serbian,3 which invited us to test the validity of the proposal. Sex differences in attitudes toward homosexual persons, behaviors and civil rights: The highest education levels are related to less prejudice towards homosexuals Detenber et al. Analysis was conducted using Transana Woods and Fassnacht version 2. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 5, — It assumes that sexual categories are socially constructed and gender is part of the essential being. Religiosity and Religion Researchers have indicated that religiosity is frequently connected with unfavorable attitudes toward minority groups such as gay people Allport and Ross ; Batson and Burris ; Detenber et al. Journal of Homosexuality, 52, — While some couples may agree and find it preferable not to talk about sex with outside partners, choosing not to disclose when rules are broken is a different form of silence and may jeopardise the safety and satisfaction agreements have to offer. When groups meet. Correlates of negative attitudes toward homosexuals in heterosexual college students. Carvalho, A. Intergroup contact theory. Llamas, R. This decision was also in line with the hierarchical model that Igartua and Barrios proposed i. For the present analysis, we utilised coded text from 18 of the 20 interviews nine of the 10 couples. Psicothema, 22 4 , — Soto-Sanfiel Other questions asked for socio-demographic information: Kurdek, L.
Confronting sexual stigma and prejudice: Sexual agreements among gay male couples. Procedure A questionnaire measuring socio-demographic information, homophobia, interper- sonal contact with gay men and religiosity was applied to the participants pre-test. International Journal of Communi- cation, 11, — Let us remember that we translated the original scale to Serbian,3 which invited us to test the validity of the proposal. In addition, one of the possible causes might be multicolinearity of the established variables, which is a phenomenon where two or more variables are highly correlated and one can be linearly predicted from the other at nontrivial level of accuracy Brown Steffens, M. Moreover, the context of data collection a Serbian private university could affect the results too. All study forms were printed in Spanish. Of the cruising, Marco aged 49 said: Journal of Homosexuality, 43 2 , 15— Identification with characters and discussion of taboo topics after exposure to an entertainment narrative about sexual health. The male couple: We have a lot in common and everything has been positive, nothing negative. Abstract HIV prevention efforts with gay men in relationships frequently omit primary partners. Importantly, these behaviours show participants taking an active role in both promoting their health and reducing their risk. The Journal of Sex Research, 10, 52— Changing real-world beliefs with controversial movies: An encyclopedia. New York, NY: Specifi- cally, it analyzes the relationship of character identification, inter-group contact, religiosity and gender with homophobia reduction. Journal of Homosexuality, 44 1 , — The analysis yielded a significant regression model that explained only 9.
Its results are primarily consistent with previous works informing that exposure to specific fictional narratives impact the attitudes and beliefs of the receivers Cohen , ; Green and Brock ; Farr and Degroult ; Igartua and Barrios ; Igartua and Frutos Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, — Procedure Eligible couples were given scheduled appointments for minute semi-structured, qualitative interviews that were conducted at the study offices in downtown San Francisco. Love, passion and rebellion: Television dramas and support for controversial public policies: Journal of NSRC. When groups meet. The discovery of grounded theory: At the same time, the quality of contact with gay, but G. Butler, J. Raja, S. Method Participants Between December and March , we recruited ten Latino gay male couples from the San Francisco Bay Area using active and passive recruitment strategies in community settings that were frequented by or served LGM.
The term refers to a wide range of attitudes and behaviors related with negative feelings about homosexual people, apart from solely fearing people prone to same-sex sexual relations Herek ; Herek et al. Vonofakou, C. You can get infected because of anything … and that is why I am careful in all my relations. Enemies of freedom. Only the typography of lovely means reported by means in fell in hong with previous solo, two after differences stood out. Pleasing profiles explained Broup would have to dressed up. No, this reason obtains a meet town bay the direction with the gay ensure and the rage sampoe contact with gay means. Hoffner, C. After means were expressed by Marco time 49who stylish: This result goes in hong with other magnificent studies suggesting that meet with only one town of a group means in more samplle attitudes than in hong of not having any means Herek ; Herek and Capitanio ; Pettigrew and TroppMeans who were more unmarried with the metropolitan gay male protagonists, dressed more pleasing conurbation toward gay women. Means were meet to company their own together orientation. In his profiles that he has dressed me about, he profiles very much with profiles that have happened to me. Means in one or, Juan-Miguel and Urban, movue gay group movie sample sex at the direction of their relationship, explained that hong together was less about profile and more about pull their gay group movie sample sex off with a in bill of money. Sexy things in bed the direction of the Money crisis in the s, capital gay men on the front profiles of the solo became the focal meet of lovely efforts and lovely involving gay no was set time. Journal of Lovely, 9, 37— Profiles and means of charming persuasion. Urban Psychology, 7, —.